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Changes in the Land: Present-Day Use of Land in the Bedias Creek-Trinity River Confluence

20th Century (and Beyond) Changes to the Land

The land at the confluence of Bedias Creek and the Trinity River has been a Bedias Indian settlement, Spanish garrison and bustling cotton plantation. Today it’s blanketed in forest, home to cattle and timber production, oil and gas wells, and state prison facilities. The story behind the transition is one of social, cultural, economic and technological change.

Today, the land at the confluence of Bedias Creek and the Trinity River is blanketed in forest, and dedicated largely to cattle and timber production, recreational use, oil and gas extraction, and state prison facilities, having transitioned from farming and sharecropping during the 20th Century. The story behind this transition is one of economic, social, cultural and technological change.

In his 1983 foundational book, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England, environmental historian William Cronon theorized that studying the “role humans played in changing the land” on which they lived is as important as studying the lives of the people themselves. [1] As example, Cronon observed that significant changes to the land occurred because of the “shift from Indian to European dominance" beginning in the earliest days of the colonies. [2] These changes were driven largely by the transition to a mercantile economy, which favored property ownership and connected colonial goods to a European market. In studying the relationship between the ecological and social, or lifestyle, changes, Cronon concluded that most ecological change is driven by changing modes of economic production, and by social and cultural change. [3]

This certainly holds true in the Bedias Creek-Trinity River region in the present-day counties of Walker, Madison and Houston. Here,
the Bedias Indians lived for centuries, modifying the land they held collectively to support their hunter/gatherer lifestyle. They were eradicated by disease and European settlement, and then relocated to federal reservations. The Bedias population was supplanted by the Spanish garrison of Trinidad de Salcedo, followed by Anglo-American settlers, such as Samuel Calhoun, whose plantation economy was driven by slaves who became sharecroppers after the Civil War. The land was modified by each group as needed to support their means of economic production and by the ensuing social and cultural changes. [4]

The years following the Civil War also were marked by social, cultural, economic and technological changes that altered the land's use. By the 1880s, more than 60 percent of those operating farms in Walker County were tenants or sharecroppers, and many were former slaves. [5] Under the crop-lien system, they held no ownership and worked for a small share of the crop receipts. [6] Their plight was compounded by the boll weevil infestation of the early 1900’s, which caused a significant decline in cotton production. [7] By 1905, Texas newspapers reported that damaged crops were being abandoned. [8] By 1919, some East Texas cotton farmers had already turned their attention to oil, which had been discovered on several farms. [9] Cotton production gradually shifted to the Texas High Plains, where the boll weevil was more susceptible to cold temperatures. [10] The population continued to thin during World War I and the Great Depression, as low pay and fewer farm jobs led many to leave the area for higher paying manufacturing or industrial jobs. [11] The Depression significantly altered Walker County’s economy “as cotton farming collapsed, sharecroppers left the land and cattle ranching became more dominant.” [12] After World War II, the use of irrigation further shifted cotton production toward the High Plains and Rio Grande Valley. [13] By the 1970’s, cattle ranching had become the most profitable segment of Texas agriculture and cotton had all but disappeared from Walker County. [14]

Commensurate with the decline of the region’s cotton growing era was the rise of its timber industry. The 1870’s brought the International and Great Southern Railroad, and its connection to the Houston and Great Northern Railroads enabled lumber and other finished products manufactured from Walker County timber to be transported to national and global markets, and provided employment to former sharecroppers. [15] During the Depression, four Texas National forests were created, and reforestation efforts led by the U.S. and Texas Forest Services helped sustain the industry. [16] In the 1940s, new uses were found for the region’s southern yellow pine, including the creation of newsprint from pulp and the invention of the log debarker, which enabled pine to be used for laminated beams, particle board and fiber board. [17] Today, the growing, harvesting and production of timber generates $41 billion for the Texas economy, much of which is centered in East Texas. [18] Texas timber is used for framing studs, plywood and two-by-fours for the home building industry, wood for furniture, and paper and cardboard. [19] As some 70 percent of Walker County land is covered in pine forest, lumber and forest products companies comprise a large percentage of the county’s economy, along with oil and gas production and the Texas prison system. [20]

After the Civil War, demand for petroleum products such as kerosene drove increased oil exploration as well. [21] The 1901 discovery of the Spindletop oil field on a Jefferson County salt dome launched Texas’ first oil boom and the “modern petroleum industry.” [22] An extensive pipeline system was built to transport oil from rural fields to refineries that were built along the Texas Gulf Coast. [23] This further expanded and diversified the region’s economy and provided jobs for former sharecroppers. [24] The discovery of natural gas in 1914 and subsequent construction of gas pipelines to refineries completed the shift from a farming to oil and gas economy. [25] During the Depression, the industry continued to build pipelines and refineries in support of the Gulf Coast’s fast growing petrochemical industry, and demand soared after WWII. [26] “Oil became the dominant commodity in the state” and cotton was no longer king.” [27] In the 1950’s, global demand for petrochemical products such as styrene, butadiene (used for synthetic rubber) and polypropylene (thermoplastic) further fueled the Texas oil and gas industry. [28] Texas now leads the nation in oil and gas production. [29] Today, more than 100 oil and gas wells dot Walker County, each well producing an average of 95 barrels of energy (BOE) per year. [30]

Prison facilities also dot the Trinity River region, stemming from the 1848 construction of the Texas State Penitentiary in nearby Huntsville. [31] Houston County's Wainright Unit, formerly named the Eastham Prison Farm, is a 12,979-acre unit housing 2,143 trustees engaged in farming and livestock operations. [32] Its existence also stems from the end of the plantation economy. In 1896, Mrs. D. Eastham paid the state (not the workers) $14.50 per month to use 119 convicts to work her 13,000-acre cotton plantation just west of the Trinity River in Houston County, many of them former sharecroppers. [33] In 1919, the plantation became a maximum-security prison. [34] Among its famous inmates is Clyde Barrow of Bonnie and Clyde fame, who was incarcerated at Eastham from April 1930 to May 1932 for car theft and burglary. [35] In January 1934, Barrow famously freed five of his gang members from Eastham during a violent breakout. [36] A smaller 4,355-acre prison unit was established in adjacent Madison County in 1935. Named the Jim Ferguson unit, it houses up to 2,096 inmates, also engaged in agriculture and livestock production. [37]

Other economic and technological changes impacted the use of the Trinity River waterway and the Bedias Creek watershed. When Samuel Calhoun and family arrived in northern Walker County in 1845, the plantation they and their slaves built at the confluence of Bedias Creek and the Trinity River also became a bustling riverport and ferry crossing. [38] With the passage of time, decline of cotton, and the construction of roads, bridges and railroads, the Calhoun Ferry eventually ceased operating. This likely occurred between 1922 and 1934, after Samuel Calhoun’s son and heir Louis moved to Houston and then sold the Walker County land near the river. A 1922 deed of sale suggests the ferry still may have been in operation, as Louis exempted “3 or 4 acres adjacent to the ferry” along the river from the sale. [39] In 1934, Louis conveyed most of the remaining acreage, but exempted a quarter-acre of the land “at the old ferry site” for the purpose of a new ferry landing, which suggests he had (unsuccessfully) hoped to rebuild it. [40] The importance of the Trinity River to commerce and transportation also declined with the advent of the railroad in the 1870s. Northern Walker County’s rural population continued to decline as agricultural workers left for lumber manufacturing jobs, and for oil and gas jobs in Houston and the Gulf Coast. In 1970, a dam was built across the main stem of Trinity River near Livingston, a joint project between the Trinity River Authority (TRA) and City of Houston to create large reservoir to supply water to the City of Houston, which owns 70 percent of the water supply. [41] The Livingston dam, which thus created Lake Livingston, made navigating the Trinity impossible and transformed the Bedias Creek watershed into a river and lake.[42] In 2021, the TRA and East Texas Electric Cooperative completed the construction of the R.C. Thomas Hydroelectric Project at the dam, which now provides 124-million kilowatt-hours of electricity per year to East Texas homes and businesses, and offsets 64,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. [43]

Thus, the shift in land use from farming and sharecropping to cattle and timber, oil and gas extraction, prisons – and the damming of the Trinity River for water and hydroelectric power - were driven by economic, social and technological change. The region’s economic means of production were impacted by technological advancements that rendered the region less suitable for cotton and the river less important for commerce and transportation. At the same time, these changes enabled global market access for the region’s burgeoning cattle, timber, oil and gas sectors, and supplied water and electricity to East Texas’ growing urban population. Today, the land that once comprised Samuel Calhoun’s plantation is blanketed in forest, dotted with cattle and awash with lakes and tributaries, yet is lightly populated, with virtually nothing remaining of its long-ago Bedias Indian, Spanish and settler inhabitants.

Images

This 12.5-acre Lost Indian Lake recreational property is located on Lost Indian Camp Road, less than two miles south of the Calhoun Cemetery and possibly was part of the former Calhoun plantation. The area is less than 1.5 miles from the Trinity River and used for recreational hunting, fishing and hiking. According to a recent real estate listing, Lost Indian Lake "dates back to the 1930’s when ten local families pooled their funds to purchase 125 acres that included a 10+/-acre lake.  Today, each of the ten owners retain a 1/10 undivided interest in the 125 acres."
This 12.5-acre Lost Indian Lake recreational property is located on Lost Indian Camp Road, less than two miles south of the Calhoun Cemetery and possibly was part of the former Calhoun plantation. The area is less than 1.5 miles from the Trinity River and used for recreational hunting, fishing and hiking. According to a recent real estate listing, Lost Indian Lake "dates back to the 1930’s when ten local families pooled their funds to purchase 125 acres that included a 10+/-acre lake. Today, each of the ten owners retain a 1/10 undivided interest in the 125 acres." A 12.5-acre vacant lot on Lost Indian Lake, less than two miles south the Calhoun Cemetery. The lot on Lost Indian Camp Road recently sold for $4,000 an acre. The listing reads: "Located...north of Huntsville, TX off of FM 247, Lost Indian Lake dates back to the 1930’s when 10 local families pooled their funds to purchase 125 acres that included a 10+/-acre lake. Today, each of the 10 owners retain a 1/10 undivided interest in the 125 acres, with an area for a cabin, and access to the entire 125 acres for hunting, fishing, hiking or any outdoor recreational activity you can imagine. The western side of the lake has the cabin locations leaving the North, East and South sides relatively undisturbed native forest land. Located less than 1.5 miles from the Trinity River, and with elevation changes in excess of 100 feet, the North and Eastern portion of the property is cut by rugged natural drainage features rarely found in East Texas that provide for unique hiking opportunities and abundant wildlife that include whitetail deer, hogs, squirrels, and coyotes. The lightly fished 10+/- acre lake is stocked with bass and catfish that are readily caught even by the novice angler..." The lot's legal description: DYER B F (A-162), TRACT 6, ACRES 12.5. Source:

The image was in the real estate listing for the property.  https://homelandprop.com/properties/1-10th-interest-lost-indian-lake-fishing-hunting-club/?fbclid=IwAR2RRXEe0cM-w2KNI1JWQsraKZVIIbhQ3or5EWMa-phBPgPSwNTOnAStlmE_aem_AasjpA73TNIQuE8U5p1yzIJXO9Mlk1Ow3oQ1FCQXLqnRfW_FllvYHcXjEKSOmcr61kv13v6eHq2GBbdqBvNzRItj

 

Creator: Photographer unknown. Date: Within the last two years.
Aerial of the confluence of Bedias Creek and the Trinity River near the former Samuel Calhoun plantation. Lost Indian Lake can be seen near the bottom of the image, directly south of the Calhoun family cemetery.
Aerial of the confluence of Bedias Creek and the Trinity River near the former Samuel Calhoun plantation. Lost Indian Lake can be seen near the bottom of the image, directly south of the Calhoun family cemetery. An aerial image of Bedias Creek, the Trinity River and the Calhoun Cemetery, which was the site of the former Calhoun plantation. Once planted in cotton and corn, today the region is blanketed in pine forest and dotted with cattle. Lost Indian Lake, used for recreational purposes, can be seen at the bottom of the image, directly south of the Calhoun cemetery. Source: Google Earth. https://earth.google.com/web/@30.90588185,-95.60846329,48.62110874a,1668.52812105d,35y,14.28158518h,0t,0r/data=OgMKATA Creator: Google Earth Date: Search conducted in April 2024.
TImber forest near the Bedias Creek region in Walker County, TX
TImber forest near the Bedias Creek region in Walker County, TX A current aerial image of timber forests near Bedias Creek in Walker County, TX. Source: Google Earth. https://earth.google.com/web/@30.90588185,-95.60846329,48.62110874a,1668.52812105d,35y,14.28158518h,0t,0r/data=OgMKATA Creator: Google Earth Date: Search performed April 2024.
Samuel Calhoun family cemetery in Walker County, Texas.
Samuel Calhoun family cemetery in Walker County, Texas. A present-day (2020) view of the Calhoun family cemetery in northern Walker County, TX. It's on the site of the former Calhoun plantation which was active in the mid-to-late 1800s and stretched across portions of Walker, Madison and Houston counties. Source: Posted by Brit Rad on Findagrave.com. CEM2699_03488477-20dc-4cc4-9248-bb914bc330db.png (2048×1529) (findagrave.com). Creator: Photo taken by Brit Rad. Date: April 2020.
Livestock in a Texas pasture.
Livestock in a Texas pasture. Image of local cattle and horses in a Walker County, Texas pasture. The region is known for timber and cattle production. Source: Source: Walker County website (Brands and Marks / Walker County, TX) Creator: Unknown Date: Retrieved April 2024
A managed timber forest in East Texas.
A managed timber forest in East Texas. This photograph shows tall pines in a managed forest in East Texas. Some 70 percent of Walker County is covered in pine forest and the lumber and forest products industries comprise a large portion of the county's economy. Source: Source: Texas A&M AgriLife photo by Courtney Sacco. https://agrilifetoday.tamu.edu/2023/08/08/texas-timber-finding-added-value-in-new-markets. Creator: Courtney Sacco, Texas AgriLife. Date: 2023
Timber cut in a forested region of northern Walker County.
Timber cut in a forested region of northern Walker County. This image is an aerial image of a forested region of northern Walker County in which timber has been cut. The area is blanketed in pine forest and the lumber/timber industry is significant piece of the local economy, Source: Google Earth.  Google Earth Creator: Google Earth. Date: Retrieved April 2024.
The Texas Prison System's J. Dale Wainright Unit in Lovelady, Houston County, Texas.
The Texas Prison System's J. Dale Wainright Unit in Lovelady, Houston County, Texas. An aerial view of the Wainright Unit, part of the Texas Prison System. Formerly called the Eastham Prison Farm (built on the former Eastham Plantation), its more notorious inmates include Clyde Barrow of Bonnie and Clyde. Source: The Texas Department of Criminal Justice newsletter. 
TDCJ Connections Newsletter (texas.gov)
Creator: Unknown. Date: Retrieved April 2024.
A black sharecropper family picking cotton in the early 20th Century. Many emancipated former slaves became sharecroppers, including those who worked on cotton plantations in Walker County and across East Texas.  Many left the rural farm setting for higher paying jobs offered by the rise of the oil, gas and forestry industries.
A black sharecropper family picking cotton in the early 20th Century. Many emancipated former slaves became sharecroppers, including those who worked on cotton plantations in Walker County and across East Texas. Many left the rural farm setting for higher paying jobs offered by the rise of the oil, gas and forestry industries. Many emancipated slaves struggled to earn a living after the Civil War and often became sharecroppers, or farm tenants. They rented land from the owners and paid for it and their expenses with their share of the crop receipts, which kept many in poverty. This image shows a group of black sharecroppers in the early twentieth century. Many emancipated former slaves became sharecroppers, including those who worked cotton plantations in Walker County and across East Texas. The opportunity to earn a better living led many to leave the rural area for higher paying jobs in the oil, gas and forestry sectors. Source: Obtained from The Bullock Musuem's "The African American Story" Collection. https://www.thestoryoftexas.com/discover/campfire-stories/african-americans. Original image courtesy of the Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin. Creator: Unknown. Date: Early 20th Century.
Oil gushes at the Spindletop Oilfield, circa 1901.
Oil gushes at the Spindletop Oilfield, circa 1901. Oil gushes from a well at the Spindletop Oilfield in 1901, which launched Texas's first oil boom and its petrochemical industry. Many former sharecroppers and tenant farmers left farming for the higher paying jobs offered by the rise of Texas' oil and gas sectors. Today, the sector accounts for a large portion of the East Texas economy. Source: Image courtesy Texas Energy Museum. Spindletop Oil Field | Flickr Creator: Unknown Date: Circa 1901.
"Cotton Crop Lost; East Texans Turn Thoughts to Oil."
"Cotton Crop Lost; East Texans Turn Thoughts to Oil." This article from the Austin American-Statesmen Article dated Friday, Sep 12, 1919 (on page 4) states that much of the East Texas cotton crop has been lost to the boll weevil, but some E. Texans' thoughts had already turned to oil, which had been discovered on several farms, including farms in Crockett, TX. Source: Originally appeared in the Austin American-Statesmen newspaper on Sep 12, 1919, p. 4. This image was obtained on Newspapers.com. Creator: The Austin American-Statesmen. Date: Fri, September 12, 1919,
Workers pose in front of an oil derrick, alongside a mule-drawn wagon that has been loaded with oil barrels.
Workers pose in front of an oil derrick, alongside a mule-drawn wagon that has been loaded with oil barrels. The original caption for this photo states that these are National Park Service Workers. Standing in front of a Texas oil derrick, the workers have loaded oil barrels on a mule-drawn wagon. The image serves as an example of the rise of Texas oil industry. Source: Located on the National Park Service article on oil and gas, which credits original source to Lamar University Archives and Special Collections. History of the Oil & Gas Industry - Big Thicket National Preserve (U.S. National Park Service) (nps.gov) Creator: Unknown Date: Unknown.
The railroad swing bridge over the Trinity River at Riverside, Walker County, TX.
The railroad swing bridge over the Trinity River at Riverside, Walker County, TX. In the 1870s, the railroad constructed this swing bridge over the Trinity River at Riverside in Walker County, TX. Built for train traffic, the bridge could swing open to enable barge and riverboats to pass along the river below. It was only opened twice as the advent of railroad transportation marked the end of the riverboat and locally, the declining importance of the Trinity River for commerce and transportation. The railroad connected rural Walker County and its products to the rest of the nation and eventually, to global markets. Source: Source: Trinity County Historical Society. https://www.texasescapes.com/TexasBridges/Trinity-County-Trinity-River-Railroad-Swing-Bridge.htm. Additional information: Cheryl Spencer, “Riverside’s Swinging Railroad Bridge,” Episode 31: March. 26, 2008, in Sam Houston’s Stomping Grounds, adapted by permission of the Walker County Historical Commission from: Riverside’s Swinging Railroad Bridge (1986) in Walker County Historical Commission (Ed.), Walker County, Texas: A History. Creator: Unknown Date: Unknown photo, but bridge constructed in 1872.
A Texas Company (later named Texaco) petroleum truck.
A Texas Company (later named Texaco) petroleum truck. A petroleum truck bearing the name and logo of The Texas Company circa 1912. One of the companies at the forefront of the Texas oil boom, the Texas Company later became known as Texaco. Source: The Portal to Texas History. Petroleum Products, The Texas Company - The Portal to Texas History (unt.edu)  The Portal to Texas History. Petroleum Products, The Texas Company - The Portal to Texas History (unt.edu) Creator: Unknown Date: Circa 1912.
A train hauls logs across East Texas in the early 20th Century.
A train hauls logs across East Texas in the early 20th Century. This black and white image of a training hauling logs from an East Texas forest is dated circa 1910. The advent of the railroad connected East Texas timber - and the forestry products manufactured from the timber - to global markets. The rise of the timber/lumber industry also offered higher paying jobs to those who'd formerly worked as sharecroppers or tenant farmers. Source: Source:  East Texas History Center.  https://thcdev.imgix.net/uploads/exhibits/Temple_No_6_with_logtrainloader_ca1910_watermark.jpg?fit=clip&fm=jpg&q=80&s=73277c719934b1a4d4ec578036a02094 Creator: Unknown. Date: 1910.
A Southern Pine Lumber Company train pulls loaded log cars to a Diboli, TX sawmill.
A Southern Pine Lumber Company train pulls loaded log cars to a Diboli, TX sawmill. The photo caption reads: "Southern Pine Lumber Company Engine 13, with a side door caboose and steam log loader in tow, pulls eleven loaded log cars toward the Diboll sawmill in about 1962." The railroad connected East Texas lumber and forestry products to global markets and today the timber/lumber sector remains a large portion of the region's economy. Source: The History Center  https://www.thehistorycenteronline.com/exhibits/east-texas-railroad-photograph-selections Creator: Photo donated by Joe Dale Morris.
Date: 1962
The Paris (TX) Evening News headline of January 16, 1934, "Clyde Barrow Rescues Five Convicts in Machine Gun Raid on Prison Farm."
The Paris (TX) Evening News headline of January 16, 1934, "Clyde Barrow Rescues Five Convicts in Machine Gun Raid on Prison Farm." In January 1934, Clyde Barrow, of Bonnie and Clyde fame, who himself had once been incarcerated at the Eastham prison farm, helped five of their gang members escape Eastham in a bloody prison break. Eastham, named for the former Eastham Plantation on which it was built, was later named the Wainright Unit, which still operates in Madison County, TX. East Texas is home to a number of prison units, stemming from the 1848 construction of the Texas State Penitentiary in nearby Huntsville, Texas. Source: Source: “Clyde Barrow Rescues Five Convicts in Machine Gun Raid on Prison Farm.” The Paris (TX) Evening News, January 16, 1934, 1. https://www.newspapers.com/image/6002986. Creator: The Paris Texas Evening News. Date: The original newspaper was published in January 1934.
The Calhoun ferry in operation crossing the Trinity River.
The Calhoun ferry in operation crossing the Trinity River. This is an image of the Calhoun ferry in operation, crossing the Trinity River. The date of this image is unknown, but it appears to be early 1900's. The Samuel Calhoun family built a plantation, and the ferry crossing, at the Trinity River and Bedias Creek confluence upon arriving in Walker County in 1845. It is not known exactly when the ferry began to operate, although ticket evidence shows it was operating in 1862. It ceased operations sometime between 1922 and 1934; sometime following Louis Calhoun's (Samuel's son and heir) move to Houston, Texas. Source: Calhoun Family archive, shared with Public History Students at Sam Houston State University by descendants in April 2024. Creator: Unknown Date: Date of the original photo is unknown; shared with Sam Houston State photos in April 2024
A "paper as good as currency" ticket in the amount of 25 cents for the Wyser and Calhoun ferries on the Trinity River, issued by the Calhoun Ferry and dated 1862.
A "paper as good as currency" ticket in the amount of 25 cents for the Wyser and Calhoun ferries on the Trinity River, issued by the Calhoun Ferry and dated 1862. The two ferries operated nearby on the Trinity River, with the Calhoun Ferry located at the juncture of Bedias Creek and the Trinity River, where it served as a ferry crossing. From original caption, the note “is printed in blue ink with a red 25 CENTS protector and depicts Ceres kneeling with a Native American woman at left, was payable in currency when presented…” This note, now collectable, sold for $1,762.50 in 2012 and is being offered for sale again. Source:

Heritage Auctions website, accessed May 1, 2024. (Houston County / Madison County / Walker County), TX- Wyser and | Lot #96169 | Heritage Auctions (ha.com)

Creator: The note/ticket is part the Heritage Auctions' Powell Texas Currency Collection Part II. Date: The image was accessed on May 1, 2024
The R.C. Thomas Hydroelectric plant on the Lake Livingston Dam in the Trinity River.
The R.C. Thomas Hydroelectric plant on the Lake Livingston Dam in the Trinity River. In 1970, a dam was constructed on the Trinity River near Livingston, Texas, in partnership between the Trinity River Authority (TRA) and the City of Houston, to create a water supply for Houston and the surrounding area. The resulting reservoir is called Lake Livingston. In 2021, the R.C. Thomas Hydroelectric Plant was built at the Lake Livingston Dam and provides 124 million kilowatt-hours of electricity to East Texas residents and businesses. The dam on the Trinity made navigation along the Trinity impossible and forever changed the Bedias watershed. Source: East Texas Electric Cooperative https://www.etec.coop/news/2021/11/12/co-op-flips-the-switch-on-clean-energy-at-lake-livingston-dam Creator: Photographer unknown, but affiliated with the East Texas Electric Cooperative. Date: Image was created around the time of the RC Thomas Hydroelectric Plant dedication, which was Nov. 11, 2021.

Metadata

Elizabeth A. Jones, “Changes in the Land: Present-Day Use of Land in the Bedias Creek-Trinity River Confluence,” East Texas History, accessed May 26, 2024, https://easttexashistory.org/items/show/383.