Filed Under Native Americans

Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty")

The Treaty was a promise of a permanent home for the Cherokee Indians of East Texas, and it was a pledge of peace with the Texans. Sam Houston signed for the Texans, and Cheif Bowls signed for the Cherokee Indians. But when Mirabeau Lamar came into the office, the Treaty meant for peace became one of blood. The Cherokee Indians fought to keep the lands promised to them in the Treaty, but they could not overcome Lamar's army, and many Cherokees lost their lives, including Cheif Bowl. [1]

This statue is located on the south side of Main Street in Nacogdoches just east of the square and features Sam Houston (1793-1863) and Cherokee Chief Bowl (1756-1839). On February 23, 1836, Sam Houston and Chief Bowl signed a treaty granting Cherokees land in East Texas. The Republic of Texas did not honor the treaty and war broke out between the Texans and local tribes. [2]

Chief Bowl, the principal chief of the Cherokees in Texas, was born in North Carolina around 1756. Between 1810 and 1819, Chief Bowl and his people moved around until they settled just north of Nacogdoches. In Texas, Chief Bowl became the primary "civil" chief or "peace chief" of a council that united several Cherokee villages. Starting in 1822, Bowl began negotiations with the Mexican government for a land grant or land title for the Cherokees in East Texas. He cooperated with the Mexican government in putting down the Fredonian Rebellion, but still did not receive a land grant. In 1833 he made another attempt to secure from the Mexican government land on the Angelina, Neches, and Trinity rivers, but negotiations were interrupted by political unrest in Texas. Finally, in 1833 Chief Bowl and Sam Houston negotiated a treaty guaranteeing the tribe possession of lands occupied in East Texas. However, after the Texas Revolution, the senate of the Republic of Texas invalidated the treaty. Afterward, Chief Bowl allied with people wanting a Mexican re invasion of Texas. Because of this brief alignment, President Mirabeau Lamar ordered Chief Bowl and his people to leave Texas. Unwilling to leave, Chief Bowl mobilized his warriors to resist expulsion. On July 16, 1839, Chief Bowl was killed in the Battle of the Neches. [3]

Friends of Historic Nacogdoches, Inc. sponsored this bronze statue, and Michael Boyett (1943-2015) sculpted it, and the dedication was on June 7, 2003. [4]


Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty")
Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty") The Cherokees call themselves Ani-Yunwiya, or the "Principal People."
Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty")
Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty") When Sam Houston was president of the Republic of Texas, he advocated for peace with all Texas Indians.
Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty")
Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty") Plaque on the Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty") statue.
Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty")
Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty") Sam Houston lived among the Cherokees in Tennessee as an adolescent, and Chief Oolooteka gave him the Indian name Colonneh, or "the Raven." Houston maintained great sympathy toward Indians, so it is no surprise that he and Cheif Bowls became great friends.



Emily Smith, “Sam Houston & Chief Bowl (Duwali) (AKA "The Treaty"),” East Texas History, accessed March 5, 2024,