Filed Under African Americans

Andrew "Rube" Foster

As player, manager, team owner, and league president, Andrew "Rube" Foster organized and improved black baseball in America during the 1910s and 1920s. Foster was born in 1879 in the cotton town of Calvert, Texas though his career would quickly take him to the urban centers of the North. At seventeen his abilities first led him to the Waco Yellow Jackets, a semi-professional black team. Talk of Foster's skills quickly spread and carried him to Hot Springs, Arkansas where he earned the nickname "Rube" after defeating Rube Waddell of the Philadelphia Athletics, a white major league team. Between 1902 and 1907 Foster moved in and out of professional black baseball shuffling between teams before finally landing with the Leland Giants in Chicago. During this time his reputation and prowess on the mound grew to mythic levels fueled by his near perfect winning percentage.

Foster's contributions to baseball far exceeded a winning record. His article in "Sol White's Official Base Ball Guide" shared his strategy for pitch selection and his forward-looking ideas about conditioning and stretching, advice that impacted both black and white pitchers. Foster became manager of the Leland Giants and began altering the business model of Negro League baseball, negotiating higher profits for his team and scheduling games to maximize revenue. Foster eventually left Frank Leland in 1909 with legal rights to the name, the Leland Giants, and most of the team's star players to create his own franchise. From his position as owner of the American Giants, Foster doggedly pushed for control of all Negro League baseball to ensure organization and wide-spread financial success. Other owners, some of whom were white, resisted Foster's efforts to organize the different teams for fear of additional costs and restrictions on play that might impact profits.

In February 1920 Foster would achieve his goal of a unified black baseball league. Meeting in Kansas City, owners of professional black baseball teams met to create the Negro National Baseball League and named Foster as the league's president. As president, Foster set the schedule of the league and even moved players around to promote competitiveness, understanding that teams with miserable records hurt attendance and everyone's revenue. Foster significantly impacted black baseball in Texas by encouraging his league teams to conduct spring training and exhibition games in the state, which stimulated local excitement for the game. The matches also placed local talent on display for Negro League organizations, a significant economic opportunity for small town African Americans.

Between 1920 and 1926 Foster led the Negro National League, creating a tradition that would last through the 1960s. Foster's leadership ended in 1926 with his involuntary commitment to the Kankakee Asylum after a mental breakdown. He would die in the institution four years later.

Rube Foster's vision of Negro League baseball never centered on segregation, but on integration. "We have to be ready when the day comes," he reportedly told a friend. Foster's purpose in playing and leading the Negro League was to ensure that black players were competitive on the day that major league finally reopened its doors to African Americans. Foster would not live to see the integration of baseball, but his creation and cultivation of organized professional black baseball would ensure a home for greats like Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson and a training ground for future major league greats like Ernie Banks and Willie Mays.


Rube Foster at Bat Rube Foster hit for over .300 during most of his playing years. His hitting and base stealing abilities influenced his managerial style later in his career. Foster developed the bunt and run play and encouraged his players to steal bases aggressively, contributing to the energetic style of baseball characteristic of the Negro League. Source: The National Pastime Museum
Andrew "Rube" Foster Foster's accomplishments as a pitcher were only surpassed by his talents with business and finance. According to Rob Fink in "Playing in the Shadows," Foster "single-handedly" was responsible for the survival of the Negro National League. Source: National Baseball Hall of Fame
Chicago American Giants, 1916 Rube Foster, the player-manager, is seated among his players in the front row, center, holding a catchers mitt. The American Giants began playing in 1910 and ended as a team in 1952 with the end of black baseball. Foster managed the team from 1911 until 1926 when a mental breakdown forced his commitment to an asylum. During the first three years of the Negro National League, the American Giants dominated thanks largely to Rube's leadership as manager and his influence as league president. Source: The National Pastime Museum Date: 1916
Philadelphia Giants, 1904 In 1904, Rube Foster left the Philadelphia Cuban X-Giants for the Philadelphia Giants for more money. Unlike the white baseball where players were property of teams, black star players routinely changed teams for more pay. The Philadelphia Giants won championships in 1904, 1905, and 1906, thanks to Foster's incredible pitching. Foster is pictured in the back row, second from the left. Source: "Philadelphia Inquirer" Date: 1904
Rube Foster Cartoon As a manager, Rube Foster was well known for his baseball innovations that accelerated and added excitement to the game. The cartoon depicts a trick play that Foster utilized to reportedly win at least two games. With his men in position at second and third, Foster would yell out to the pitcher "let's see that ball," pretending to want to inspect the ball for marks or modifications that were illegal. The pitcher would toss the ball, Foster would let the ball sail past him, and his runners would head for home. As Foster nor any other person had called time-out, the ball was still live and the batters could advance. Showmanship was especially important in black baseball that often struggled with attendance. Source: Indianapolis "Freeman" Date: 1907



Jarred Stewart, “Andrew "Rube" Foster,” East Texas History, accessed September 30, 2022,